urban institute nonprofit social and economic policy research

Clear and Convincing Evidence

Measurement of Discrimination in America

Document date: October 01, 1993
Released online: October 01, 1993
Auditing is a technique used to test for discrimination. The concept is straightforward: Two individuals are matched on all relevant characteristics except the one presumed to lead to discrimination. Each person then applies for the same job, housing, mortgage loan, or credit card. The differential treatment they receive provides a measure of discrimination. The authors argue that the value of auditing has grown in the current legal and political environment because it can detect subtle forms of discrimination.

Topics/Tags: | Race/Ethnicity/Gender

Usage and reprints: Most publications may be downloaded free of charge from the web site and may be used and copies made for research, academic, policy or other non-commercial purposes. Proper attribution is required. Posting UI research papers on other websites is permitted subject to prior approval from the Urban Institute—contact [email protected].

If you are unable to access or print the PDF document please contact us or call the Publications Office at (202) 261-5687.

Disclaimer: The nonpartisan Urban Institute publishes studies, reports, and books on timely topics worthy of public consideration. The views expressed are those of the authors and should not be attributed to the Urban Institute, its trustees, or its funders. Copyright of the written materials contained within the Urban Institute website is owned or controlled by the Urban Institute.

Email this Page